Saturday, September 10, 2016

Musée des Confluences in Lyon, France (2001/2010-2014)

By: Gzng Sedeeq

Right from the 2001 international competition for a natural history museum in Lyon, the museum was envisioned as a "medium for the transfer of knowledge" and not as a showroom for products.

The building ground of the museum is located on a peninsula that was artificially extended 100 years ago and situated in the confluence of the Rhône and Saône rivers. Even though it was apparent that this site would be a difficult one (536 piles had to be securely driven 30 meters into the ground), it was clear that this location would be very important for the urban design. The building should serve as a distinctive beacon and entrance for the visitors approaching from the South, as well as a starting point for urban development.

In order to build a museum of knowledge, a complex new form had to be developed as an iconic gateway. A building that truly stands out can only come into being through shapes resulting from new geometries. It was important to the concept that the flow of visitors arriving from the city to the Pointe du Confluent should not be impeded by a building. The idea was therefore to develop an openly traversable building that would be floating in part only on supports, in order to create a public space underneath.

Essentially, the building consists of three parts. Situated on a slightly raised base (due to the high groundwater), two auditoriums (for 327 and 122 persons, respectively) and work spaces, which will also be used for training purposes for the surrounding schools, will be located next to storage and workshops for the production of exhibitions.

The entrance building, the so-called Crystal, is openly traversable, and a vertical access to the exhibition spaces. The so-called Espace liant, a connecting path, can be reached by an escalator, a staircase, and a spiral ramp. Left and right of this path are arranged the individual exhibition halls (one of them two-level), and at the end is a view of the confluence of two rivers, the Pointe du Confluent. The steel structure, conceived as a bridge construction, made it possible to develop all of the exhibition halls without supports. The administration rooms are located above the exhibition spaces.

In the Plaza below this highly raised, almost flying component – the showrooms are broadly cantilevered in parts – the lit wave pattern of the surface of a small lake is reflected on the underside of the building. A brasserie emphasizes the public nature of this place. A freely accessible terrace café is located on the top floor.

In the entrance building, a drop-shaped construction serves as supporting structure. Its form was developed out of the turbulent flow created by the confluence of the two streams. This gravity well reduces the weight of the entire steel structure of the entrance building by a third.

Project data

SITE AREA:                                 20,975 m²
GROSS FLOOR AREA:                 46,476 m²
NET FLOOR AREA:                      26,700 m²
FOOTPRINT:                                  9,300 m²
CONSTRUCTION COSTS:          € 3,980 / m² / total € 185 Mio

VOLUMES (V)                     total 195,206 m³
Base (incl. Brasserie)                     59,436
Crystal / Foyer                              25,770
Cloud / Exhibition space              110,000 m³

Length:                                              190 m
Width:                                                  90 m
Height:                                                 41 m

2 auditoriums with 327 and 122 seats
working rooms for classes, conference and meeting rooms,
storage, workshops, HVACR, logistics, group entrance
brasserie on top (publicly accessible)

Main entrance, foyer, librairie / shop

9 Exhibition rooms                                     
Level 1: temporary exhibitions (5 rooms) + public ateliers for workshops
Level 2: permanent collections (4 rooms) + public ateliers for workshops
Level 3: administration
Roof top café (publicly accessible)

Competition:                                                     2001
Preliminary design / Design development:          2002-2004
1. Tender / Dialog Competitive:                          2004-2006
Construction phase 1 (pile foundation):              2006-2007
Stop of construction:                                        2007-2009
2. Tender / Execution design:                             2009-2010
Construction phase 2:                                        2010-2014
Completion:                                                      12/2014

Technical Description

Environmental concept

The foyer (Crystal) is a naturally ventilated space. The supply air enters via glazed ventilation flaps inside the east facade while the exhaust air exits via the roof area. It is therefore unnecessary to use a traditional air conditioning system. Only the main access areas and workspaces are microclimatic units whose comfort is ensured through local heating and cooling systems. The floors are cooled via ground water. This will result in significant energy savings for the museum’s foyer in the long term.
In terms of thermal insulation, the facades of the exhibition area (Cloud) are characterized by an extremely efficient building shell. All of the main access areas are illuminated naturally (not much artificial light); the water supply of the sanitation areas is provided through the ground water. A photovoltaic system is installed on the roof.


The base is designed as a reinforced concrete structure with exposed concrete walls.

Foyer / “Crystal”:
A tubular lattice with a rectangular profile of 400 x 200 mm forms the primary support of the Crystal. It rests on the concrete structures of the base and the main supporting structure of the Cloud. The center of the Crystal is occupied by the Puits de gravité, which continues the primary support and plays the role of a major support element that diverts all forces. It reduces the weight of the entry building’s entire steel construction by a third.
The secondary support structure carries the large glass panels. It consists of steel tubing arranged in the grid of the glass panels. It is connected to the primary support structure via struts made of tubes that are screwed to panels welded to the primary supports.
Blinds between the primary and secondary supporting structure protect the most sun-exposed areas and also reduce noise.  
The glass consists of single-glazed panels with extra-clear glass.
A large amount of glazed, openable windows in the different areas of the Crystal provide natural ventilation. They can be opened through a motor. Additional deeper and higher openings can provide smoke extraction in case of fire. The four different entry sequences consist of large glass doors. The main entrance has a large canopy that is connected to the primary support structure and clad with metal sheets, like the Cloud. 

Exhibition area / “Cloud”:
The Cloud’s structural system resembles a bridge structure. It rests on 12 concrete supports and three concrete towers that contain the emergency stairs and shafts. Room-high steel frameworks form the walls of the black boxes for permanent and temporary exhibitions.  
The outer skin of the Cloud consists of 3-mm stainless steel plates that have been blasted with glass beads. This special surface treatment results in a gentle reflection of the light and colors of the surrounding area.

Saturday, September 3, 2016

“Pavilion 21 MINI Opera Space”, Munich, Germany (2008-2010)

Gzng Sedeeq

Study: 02/2008
Start of Planning: 10/2009
Start of Construction: 04/2010
Opening: 06/2010

Site area: 1,790 m²
Gross area: 560 m²
Net area: 430 m²
Footprint: 560
Height: 12.5 m
Length: 38.5 m
Width: 25.5 m

The Pavilion  was created as temporary mobile space for experimental performances of the Bavarian State Opera in Munich. The dismountable construction offers place for 300 sitting or 700 standing spectators and can transported in normal freight containers.
Its modular construction makes it possible to re-mount the pavilion on any site or different urban structures and to adapt it to the particular needs.

Mass and therefore weight are the decisive criteria for good acoustics. The conception of the Pavilion 21 MINI Opera Space therefore had to overcome a contradiction: to design a lightweight construction which must allow to be dis- and re-assembled quickly, but which at the same time meets the acoustical requirements of a concert hall.
Hence how do you create the conditions for good acoustics despite a reduction of mass? Already the first considerations fixed in drawings show the basic idea of the Pavilion to introduce architectural elements which are on the one hand the spatial transformation of sound sequences, and which on the other hand develop sound reflecting and absorbing properties through their pyramid-like shape: “Soundscaping”.

Acoustics & Sounds aping

The strategy to achieve soundscaping comprises three steps: Firstly, to realize the shielding effect between square and street, secondly, to shape the geometry of the Pavilion in such a way that the surface deflects noise, and thirdly, to design the surface of the Pavilion in such a way that it reflects and absorbs sound.

In cooperation with the London based acoustic consultant Arup acoustic pyramids have been developed for the façade, which rise in all directions and – thanks to their special geometry – absorb and reflect the street noise to create a ‘zone of silence’. Beside this function the pyramids also have an effect on the vibration of the structural elements and therefore on the acoustic in the concert hall.

The design of the pyramids resulted from the abstraction of music into spatial form. As a starting point, a sequence from the song “Purple Haze” by Jimi Hendrix and a passage from “Don Giovanni” by Mozart were transcribed. Through the analysis of frequency sections from these pieces of music and in combination with the computer generated 3D model, the sequences are translated into pyramidal “spike constructions” by means of parametric “scripting”. Music becomes space.

The idea to combine architecture with music is not new. Also the term soundscaping is not new. Similar to landscaping it involves “Gestalt”. Soundscaping originates in the 1940’s and designates a method of composing. In architecture, Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis together engaged in the topic of music and architecture when they thought about three-dimensional implementation of musical compositions (Le Corbusier’s Philips Pavilion and the partition of the windows in La Tourette).

Light Installation

Towards the street and the Marstall square the outer shell is detached from the tilted double-layer façade and opens an interstitial space that offers a weather-protected lounge and bar area. The accessible, crystal-like double skin – the transcribed music –forms a transitional space from the plaza to the entrance and into the main performance space. A folded and cantilevered roof emphasizes the main entrance.

The architectural design of the inner space is complemented and enhanced by an installation in the lounge developed by cat-x. The complex multiple projection not only illuminates the interior of the lounge, but interacts with the sounds from the concert hall.  These light movements change the perception of the space, so that the architecture seems to move.

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Summer Break

Salukitecture takes the summer off so there will be no new posts on this site until the fall semester begins.  The semester begins August 22 and the next time new posts will be on this site will be about two weeks after the semester begins.  Have a great summer!  JKDobbins

Monday, May 9, 2016

Ise Grand Shrine

By: Stephen Lauer

Shrines usually have similar architectural features that signify that the structure is a prayer location. The first feature is a torii, which denotes the entrance or approach to the shrine. The purpose of torii is that they are the gate that divides the earth and the spirit world as Shinto shrines do not exist on earth according to Shinto teachings. The ground the shrines sit on is on earth but the structures and homes for the deities are in the spirit world thus allowing the deities to hear the people’s prayers much easier. Most torii are made out of wood but can be made out of other various materials and painted different colors. The main color scheme for torii is orange and black. The next feature is the komainu which are a pair of dogs or lions that guard the shrine. These are usually located by the entrance to the shrine to oversee who enters the shrine. Next is the purification trough which allows people to wash their hands and mouths before entering the shrine. Anyone that is sick, has open wounds, or is mourning must wash before entering to remove the impurities that you are bringing in. Next is the main building and offering hall which usually consist of separate buildings. The main hall is where the sacred artifacts are stored and kept safe while the offering hall is where the visitors come to say their prayers and give their offerings to the shrine. The next feature is not at all shrines but is a stage for bugaku dance or noh theater. Noh theater are songs and dances that tell the stories of legends, history, literature and even current events. Ema are the next feature at shrines and are a place for visitors to write their wishes down and leave behind in hopes that the deities will see them and make them come true. The most wished for things include good health, success, passing exams, love, and wealth. Omikuji are hung throughout shrines and are paper slips with fortunes on them. The fortunes written on them range from very good luck to very bad luck and it is said that by tying the fortune to a tree branch the good will come true and the bad can be prevented. The final feature is shimenawa which is a straw rope with white paper hanging from it to denote a sacred on the other side of the rope. Usually these are placed on torii gates to signify the shrine on the other side being sacred. One feature that will never be found at a Shinto shrine is a cemetery as death is seen as an impurity and therefore not dealt with by the Shinto shrines.
Ise Grand Shrine is the shrine dedicated to the most important deity in the Shinto religion, Amaterasu, the sun goddess. The shrine is made up of a complex of buildings which in total is roughly 125 different buildings. The main buildings in the shrine resemble granaries and do not resemble any other Asian architecture style. Naiku, the inner shrine, and Geku, the outer shrine are both disassembled and rebuilt with new materials every twenty years to keep the building fresh and new for the deities. This tradition just completed its 62nd rebuilding in 2013 making the 63rd to happen in 2033.

Low Poly Perspective of the Ise Grand Shrine

Thesis Efficient Space

By: Patrick Szczecina

            The first issue that arises that the thesis is aiming to solve is that of space usage on the interiors. When looking at interior spaces many areas are larger than they need to be or areas are smaller and need more space. When putting in adjustable walls that allow for sliding or swinging this can solve the issue above. An example of this can be the factor of one space being large and being used as multiple areas. A wall can be moved to create a new space, i.e. cut the room in half and now creating two rooms. The space can be a living or dining room, being it the largest public rooms in a home, and later can have a wall turn or slide to create a new space such as a bedroom. An architect stated that "had the added effect of unbalancing the overall proportions of living / sleeping / cooking / washing space in the flat."11 For a space to work properly all spaces need to be proportional to others and for the needs that they are meant for. This goes for both sides having a large kitchen but small dining rooms doesn’t feel right and doesn’t work correctly. Along with the idea of walls that are adjustable, another factor is that a floor is able to be adjusted. In this context the floor and walls need to be adjustable where the walls follow the floor itself. The floor can slide from an interior space past the exterior wall to create a new space. From the original room that can be rather small the floor that moves extending into the outside creates new interior spaces. The spaces within a structure all can be manipulated based on a user’s need, be it larger gathering spaces, more room for bedroom, and more room for the kitchen. This amplifies the usage of spaces to be maximized to the fullest potential and to allow as little waste of space as possible. Transformative architecture tries to solve the issue of spaces not being used or underused, by allowing spaces to be manipulated into different spaces that may be used. These spaces must function to that of users, “The suitability of the work to use by human beings in general and the adaptability of it to particular human activities, (2) the stability and permanence of the work’s construction, and (3) the communication of experience and ideas through its form.”15 This also allows for small square footage spaces to be transformed into higher capacity areas that will be used more.
11 Robarts, Stu. "Tiny German Apartment Makes Clever Use of Space." Tiny German Apartment Makes Clever Use of Space. Gizmag, 7 May 2015. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
15 Gowans, Alan. "Architecture." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.


The Last Blog

By: Megan Crider

This is the last blog of the semester – and the last one I will have to write.  It is the end of April (the 27th to be exact).  Graduation is two and a half weeks away…. I. Can’t. Believe. It.  This is crazy! We are almost finished with grad school – it seems like we have only merely begun.  School normally goes by quickly anyway (in my opinion), but this feels like it has gone by even faster. 
This has been a great experience.  I truly have enjoyed getting to know my fellow classmates.  Our class is such a diverse group of people with a wealth of different experiences and backgrounds.  It has been exciting to meet and develop relationships with them.  The student-instructor dynamic has also been a more rewarding one.  I feel like, as graduate students, we are viewed more as colleagues and less as students.  That changes the whole ‘feel’ of the classroom – it seems more professional and there is a different level of mutual respect.

Don’t get me wrong though, there have been some trying times (isn’t there always though?).  Times where we thought, “eff it, I already have a degree” and times when we have wanted to pull our hair out.  And I am quite certain that tears may have been shed at other times.  But through it all, we have stuck together and have weathered the storms of graduate school – and it has been worth it.  We are almost there! I am looking forward to graduating and completing my thesis and beginning the chapters of my life that begin after school.

Thursday, May 5, 2016

Last but not the least: Retrospection of a Year Long Journey

By: Kristina Shrestha

A year long journey started from the very first day at SIUC. The very first blog reminds me of the pristine memories and experiences I have ever had as a new Graduate student. Now, I am here posting my last blog. Last but not the least, this blog will retrospect and summarize the year long journey here at SIUC.
Despite ups and downs, this journey will be a major milestone for my career and will be a very good lesson for the future. No doubt, I learned a lot. I honed my skills on software and tools that will act like my backbone for my upcoming career. Revit, 3Ds max, Rhino, and Grasshopper were challenging to me at first glance but now situation has changed a lot. I am honed my skills on these tools including AutoCAD and Sketch Up that I had been using for almost a decade.
As mentioned above, today I am going to write about my projects so far. The first project that I had accomplished in last summer was “Open Air museum of Buildings” designed imitating nature. It is located at Little Grassy Lake, Illinois. The opening building had to be designed in such a way that it will relate to other buildings which were in display at that time. The buildings that I chose for the open air museum and buildings from nature were Falling Water House, Leaf House, Shell house, Casey Kay house and Pod Exhibition Pavilion. The opening building was the first building which would provide the facilities for the visitors.
The second project was the planning of a city in Glenelg, Maryland. The master planning had to be done in groups of three and we had choice to select buildings for an individual project. There were five choices. i.e., Apartments, Hotels, Community Centers, Senior Living and Retails. I selected mid-rise apartment for the design. The project included 11 floors and 8 floors apartments. They were two bedroom, three bedrooms and four bedroom apartments. They were located near the community center and the retail area. The site was planned in such a way that the retail space will be in a walking distance.
This semester I am working on my thesis. My thesis topic is “Creative Workspace”. The main theme of the thesis is to create a workspace which would enhance the creativity of the people working in the environment. The site for the project is downtown St Louis, Missouri. Two historic buildings exists in the area. They will be preserved and rehabilitated into apartments for the employees. My thesis is still in progress and will end at the end this summer.

New Urbanism

By: Josh West

New Urbanism is a planning and development approach based on principles of how cities, towns and communities had been built for the last several centuries: walkable blocks and streets, housing and shopping in close proximity, and accessible public spaces. Within this new era, public spaces are a high priority, functional designs and the use of underutilized spaces are focused on the most. By understanding the spaces that are not used as much, can be transformed into lively main streets or boulevards through new urbanism design. “Above all, New Urbanism is about creating sustainable, human-scaled places where people can live healthy and happy lives.” Relating this to Charleston, South Carolina, the need for better connection with the immediate area of the site is a must and by creating this connection, residents of Charleston can live a healthy and happy life with the help of new urbanism. Over the past twenty-five years, the new urbanism movement has changed the conversation from debating the alternative forms of development to discussing how best to preserve, design, develop and restore our regions, cities and neighborhoods. New urbanism includes mixed-use development, transit-oriented and traditional neighborhood design to bring new to their designs. The core of any developing process is creating a region made up of hierarchy of social and political groups, following a pattern, to create a well-rounded community. This pattern can be used for just a single, mixed-use building to an entire community. By implementing New Urbanism principles, cities can grow extensively and expand their neighborhoods and create a greater unity within their city and surrounding areas. The main new urbanism principles are:
·         Walkability
·         Connectivity
·         Mixed-use Diversity
·         Mixed Housing
·         Quality Design
·         Traditional Community Structure
·         Increased Density
·         Transportation
·         Sustainability

·         Quality of Life

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

The Construction of the Signage

By: Jeremy Clow

Saturday the 16th came through and provided a worthy day of work for the sophmore architecture students build. As the coordinator for group 6 we organized with three of the members present by 8am to work on site for the whole day. Two platforms of concrete had to be poured for the feet of the bench system. For this we transported a series of tools as well as concrete mix and water to the site. The locaiton of site 6 is approximately half a mile as the crow flies from the closest building, PSO. The PSO building and parking lot is the location for all the material and tool storage as well as offsite construction. Taking the trail system to deliver materials entails a variety of turns, elevation changes, and rough earth. Delivering as many materials in one trip is key to success with the limitations of time available on site. We started with the leveling of two platfroms in the earth to install a prefabricated 2x4 framework to pour the concrete into. The frames had to be placed in precise locations, square with one another as well as level. They also had to be centered for the feet of the bench that is mounted between two posts that hold the roof structure. A series of checks took place throughout the process, moving the bench over the holes many of times and adjusting the location and angle to ensure the pours would be perfect in the end. Afte the earth was level, square, and tamped down we added a light layer of gravel. The framework sets freely above the gravel, with additional gravel placed inside the frame and dirt packed around the outer edges. Next came the cement, mixed in a wheel barrow from 40lb bags and water delivered in 5 gallon buckets. The students were quick to learn mixing anything more than one bag at a time wasn’t worth the effort. Mixing the concrete can be difficult to get the perfect mix of water to aggregate. After a series of trials and mixing opportunities for each of them they had a pretty succesfful system of mixing to installation. The slabs were poured and construction on the signage began. A few minor items had to be completed on the roof systems and structure as well. Lunch was near and the two other participants in group 6 were arriving from previous obligations as well. The team took this opportunity for a return to PSO to regroup, acquire additonal materials, and eat their lunch. After the lunch break we returned to the site and split into two groups. A team of two and I started installing the roof and the reamaning bolts and the main structure. The other three started installing the concrete block bases and signage pieces. The signage has a very simple yet unique design system. Four concrete blocks burried in the earth with just a few inches protrduing hold the 4x4 posts that are attached to the signage. Two posts are mounted between two 2x6 treated boards on each side. The 2x6 boards are also knotched and hold 5 cedar boards that span between the posts. These cedar boards will hold the signage being produced by Touch of Nature. Completing the signage on site was a very difficult process with the earth not being level or flat. This called for a plan of action on site and the installation of the first four blocks, level and square with one another. After this was done each of the four signs wiere constructed on top of the blocks and bolted together. From there each piece was moved to its particular location and the earth was marked for the digging and installation of the concrete blocks at each signage location. The day was drawing to and end so we finished with the construction of the signage pieces and marking of the earth for excavation.

Hydraulic Engineering in Petra

By: Hanan Rawashdeh
 Petra the ancient city is one of the world’s seven wonders. What makes it so unique? And how is it that a city so secluded within the canyon walls in the middle of the hot desert South West of Jordan with no close surface water to be able to maintain a lively civilization of 20-30,000 dwellers?
Although the strategic location of the ancient city is understandable in terms of the economic factor with the trade route going through the city, living conditions are very challenging as the very dry desert climate is hot with only a few inches of precipitation yearly. And sometimes these four to five inches of annual rain would drop all at once causing a flash flood. The topography is a rocky region filled with huge gorges of sandstone and scarce with greenery.  Nomadic tribes were known to wonder the region looking for water sources due to the nature of the climate in the southern part of Jordan. Therefore in order for a city as large as Petra to withhold such numerous activities and flourish with civilization the Arab Nabateans had to find a way to engineer water to constantly flow and get stored easily within the region of the city and provide protection from any flash floods.

  Scholars believe ceramic joints making a pipeline were used to transport water. Like a perennial stream, this distribution system and water supply of the Nabataean city of Petra had exploited all possible water resources using management techniques that balance reservoir storage capacity with continuous flow pipeline systems to maintain a constant water supply throughout the year.

  Hydraulic technologies helped maintain the high living standard of city dwellers throughout the centuries.  Charles Ortloff , a hydraulic engineer, found that to create a constant flow that wasn’t too fast to fill the water pipes and create pressure that could lead to leakage the pipes needed to be sloped down an angle of four degrees. Remarkably when going back to the carved water channels he found that the Nabataeans had that same slope degree, proving to be masters in hydro engineering.
   Ueli Bellwald , a Swiss architect and archeologist believes that there were five dams constructed of blocks of mortar were constructed to prevent the flash floods from ruining
the city after discovering the remnants of a dam going back to two thousand years old.     
   He claims that clues of existing dams erected between the narrow gorges can be noted from the streaks of darker colored rocks on the canyon walls indicating the existence of Mineral deposits from previous water storage. When he followed the darker colored streaks he was led to a gorge that had two deep grooves carved inside, concluding that there was a dam had previously held the water reservoir into place anchored into the canyon walls to stand against the pressure of the stored water.
  Scholars came to a presumption that the total of water sources in Petra city are 8 springs for fresh water, 36 dams protection, more than 100 systems of reservoirs and 125miles of piping. By estimating the amount of collected waters through these methods approximately two gallons of water was the daily share of every individual of the 30,000 Petra dwellers. That is enough water to create from this desert city and oasis.

The Hydraulic system in the ancient  is a demonstration of  high engineering capability that indicates a high degree of cognitive skill which the Nabataea Arabs had in solving complex hydraulic problems and ensuring a stable water supply around 2,000 years ago.

Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Duomo di Milan Cathedral

By: Daniel Roman
Milan, Lombardy, Italy is the place where the Cathedral was built; there were actually other buildings and smaller churches in the area, which were ordered to be taken down so that this massive cathedral could be built. Now there was a plaza built throughout the year to be in front of the cathedral, and it’s a great tourist spot.
In 1386 Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo wanted a new Cathedral in the city and decided to have one built even though there were already some buildings and little churches where this massive cathedral was planned to be. The job was given to Simon da Orsenigo, his title was of Master Builder. After lack of leadership and sense of direction, the building came to a halt. Many people were questioning the looks of it, many architects putting their two cents in. At the end Gabrielle Stomoloco’s, a mathematician, design and concept was chosen to continue the building. Unfortunately in 1402 the construction came to a halt again, due to funding and once more lack of leadership. Construction resumed almost 80 years later. The inside is not as breath taking as the outside. With a simple rib vault in the ceiling, and columns striking down creating five naves. What is very harshly critical is the horrible lighting the cathedral has. The few windows that were placed along the elongated plan, are little to no use. They are covered with stain glass making it close to impossible for the brightest days in Milan to illuminate the interior. Other than that the interior is also decorated with many statues as the outside is.
The archbishop wanted it to be more like the French Gothic that was going on. But due to many years that it took to build many architects did put some time into it and worked on it, some due say that even Bramante and Leonardo put some work into the cathedral. Due to many Architects working on it, it has been said that the façade actually did at one time have a little taste of Baroque to it but later in the 1900’s was changed back to a gothic flavor. Which is why this building can also be categorized as a gothic revival.
            Hard to imagine but yes the Milan Cathedral was actually built with no flying buttresses. The actually flying buttresses were added later in the year to make it an actual Gothic building. The plus side The Flying Buttresses by my opinion are one of the most beautiful ones ever built.
In 1762 the main spiral was completed the it was toped with a polychrome statue of the
Madonna. The tower tops at an amazing 109 meters. Today you can take a grand tour and actually walk on the roof, it’s a very popular tourist attraction because it has an amazing view. Not only of the craftsmanship on the statues but it has been said that on a beautiful clear day you can see as far as the Alps. The roof is only a 200 stair climb, but for a higher price you can an elevator.
 Although the cathedral is amazingly beautiful, inside and out, and even though it was started such long time ago, the though is there but for the amount of time it took them to do it, its way out of hand, the actual last construction finalized in 1960 when the front gate. It really didn’t set a standard just because by the time that it was completed many architecture styles came and left. I think if it had only at least a quarter to a half of the time it really did, then

it would of made an impact. The actual building didn’t even have the great flying buttresses that a gothic has for a purpose, for the support. These are put only for the looks. Gothic churches are supposed to be grand and let illuminate the space with in, but these beautiful stain glass do not do their job. At the end the building is beautiful, great tourist attraction, but the there is no impact to the world.

Wind energy

By: Cole Hartke

            The need for power on an uninhabited island is essential for the modern life and every day to day things. For my thesis of the self-sustainable island resort wind power is a must to achieve the necessary power for life on the island.
            A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power. The term migrated from parallel hydroelectric technology. The technical description for this type of machine is anaerofoil-powered generator.
The result of modern engineering, today's wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of vertical and horizontal axis types. The smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs.
Slightly larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid. Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an increasingly important source of renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels.
This aspect of a wind farm is a tactic that I plan to use as I have a large island and even more water around it. With the strategic placement of the turbines to capture a large amount of the wind blowing across the island I believe with the use of the two different types of turbines I can create enough energy to power the island.
Horizontal-axis wind turbines have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator

Vertical-axis wind turbines have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. One advantage of this arrangement is that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective, which is an advantage on a site where the wind direction is highly variable. It is also an advantage when the turbine is integrated into a building because it is inherently less steerable. Also, the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground, using a direct drive from the rotor assembly to the ground-based gearbox, improving accessibility for maintenance.