Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Technology in Architecture

By: Stephen Lauer

Post 5: Adding Weather in Photoshop

            Hey so this week’s post will be another tutorial in Photoshop and may not really relate to the image I have been working with up until now but I will proceed anyway. So this week I will show you how to add weather in Photoshop to change the feeling of the image. 
Different weather types that can be added easily in Photoshop are rain and snow are the same process and fog is just as easy in create too. First rain and snow can easily be created by using noise and motion blur. First add a new layer over the top of all the existing layers and paint it completely black with the paint bucket. Next go to the filters drop down and select noise, the settings I use are around 15-30% amount with a Gaussian distribution and make sure the monochromatic box is checked. The higher the amount the heavier it is snowing/raining. Usually less looks better but for the purpose of showing what it looks like I will do more. 
The next step is to apply a motion blur in order to make the rain streaks or snow streaks. The more blur that is added the more it will look like rain and the less looks like snow. The angle of the blur is important because it allows for the rain to have a direction. Once the noise and blur are added go over to the layer adjustments and set the layer with the noise to screen to allow the lower images to show through while having the rain/snow on top. Now keep in mind if you choose to do snow then the ground will need to be adjusted to show snow cover and that can be achieved using the smudge tool and by adjusting the ground to a white color. Now my image above does not really fit the scene to have rain and snow but it gets the point across on how it is supposed to look. The next part of this tutorial is to add fog to the image. First add a new layer and select a slightly blue color (for reference I used C:28 M:13 Y:13 K:0). I may have gone a little too blue on this and should have gone a little grayer but I kind of like how it turned out. Next paint the layer with this color and use the brush as a clear tool to begin to uncover the image. I lowered the opacity of the brush to 25% to begin. I slowly cleared away the layer so that the fog is mostly on the top side of the image and keep the lower of the image clearer. Here is my finished image this week. The fog really helps the set the mood of the image and brings the rain/snow more into context. 

3D Printing

By: Patrick Szczecina
Additive Manufacturing, or 3D Printing is an upcoming way to design and engineer products ranging from automotive to medicinal. All disciplines have a use for 3D printing, for the reason that it is very customizable design. 3D printing allows for freedom of design and creation of prototypes of different objects. The 3D printer has a need for four main tools: A program for design (Rhinoceros, Sketch-Up, etc…), 3D printer program, the actual material (plastic or metal) and the 3D printer itself. By taking and allowing the computer to decide how the printer builds a model and then allowing the printer to build it, a higher quality product will be the outcome. Printing models uses only the materials necessary to complete the build as in other means material gets wasted because it cannot all be used through conventional means of model making. The Printer melts the plastic or material and builds it up layer by layer. When looking at Architecture, many use it for design of their buildings or site, but it may be used for many other means. Prototyping is just one aspect that can be used in Architecture, and this is by creating a new type of shading device, screen, joint system or even a building technique. Pertaining to Architecture, 3D printing is starting to create joints which allow components to come together. In the near future, buildings will be able to be 3D printed not in the meaning that the building will be fully built. Instead the creation of walls with windows and doors could be erect to fit into each other, in a way like a puzzle. The conventional method of built on site takes time and costs can be high due to material usage, while 3D printing cuts the built time (Since the building can be created at the warehouse or put together on site) and costs can be cut due to material usage (not wasting) and uses the exact amount that is needed. “It’s all about rapid prototyping and customization these days,” according to Subject Coordinator Dr. Steven Harvey a UOW “While traditional manufacturing involves processes such as machining, casting and forging where material is removed to reveal the final design, 3D printing builds a computer-generated design layer-by-layer,”.1
There are different types of 3D printing which consist of the tradional layer by layer built by melting material and letting it harder, CLIP (Continuous Light Interface Production) which is a water feature way printing (Pulls the material of liquid while its being formed[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UpH1zhUQY0c]) and multi-jet fusion where powder is taken and formed by a chemical under UV light. With these three main methods of 3D printing, the CLIP and Tradional method are the way to go when it comes to creating small scale models, prototypes and later life-scale components.

1 http://3dprintingsystems.com/new-3d-printing-course-for-australian-students/

Monday, November 23, 2015

Police and Community Interaction: Findings from Case Studies

By: Megan Crider

When looking up case studies for my thesis (the design of a police station in my hometown of Marion, IL – I am also focusing on community outreach), I found some interesting examples.  Not only did I find some great precedence with police station design, I also found a couple of unique examples of community programs that directly involve the interaction between citizens and the police force.  I will briefly describe my findings below.
New Orleans, Louisiana is divided into eight police districts.  The eighth district, which includes the French Quarter, Central Business District, and Bourbon Street[1], also includes a citizens’ organization, called COPS – Citizens’ Organization for Police Support.  To show appreciation for the police force, a group of citizens formed this non-profit group in 2002, along with the 8th District Police, that “establish[ed] support and mutual understanding between the officers and the community.”  Their mission since has been “to support and improve the quality of life for the 8th District Officers, which in turn enhances the security and safety of all 8th District citizens.”[2]
The organization helps to provide needed essential items and equipment to the 8th District that is not supplied by the City of New Orleans to any police district, including helmets, scooters, supplies, computers, printers, station renovations, furniture, air conditioners, and other items.  In order to supply the district with these items, COPS accepts citizen donations and holds fundraisers, including selling different types of NOPD (New Orleans Police Department) and COPS merchandise.
Additionally, the COPS participate with the 8th District Police Officers in Community Anti-Crime Walks.  These events provide opportunities for the citizens and police officers to meet and interact with one another and to reinforce the message that crime fighting and violence prevention is a joint effort between the citizens and police.  During this event, Crimestoppers information and pamphlets are handed out to help inform the public.[3]
The City of New Orleans also has eight Police Community Advisory Boards (PCABs), one for each district, that consist of representatives from the community of the given district.  The purpose is to engage in a “collaborative problem-solving process that supports both the community and the police department’s desire to enhance public safety.”  This is an “effort to reduce crime and to enhance the quality of life for all citizens through positive and open communication.”[4]  The PCAB do not make any decisions regarding the Police Department’s finances, policies, or practices.  Instead, this provides citizens with a platform to directly engage with District Commanders and other executives with the goal of understanding and informing the community about NOPD practices and policies.  The PCAB gives the citizens a voice within the community, as they can recommend, discuss, and suggest public issues and priorities with the NOPD. The PCAB assists NOPD in “establishing the highest standards for police accountability and therefore, increase the public’s trust.”[5]

[1] nola.gov/nopd/districts/
[2] cops8.org/about-us/
[3] cops8.org/events/
[4] citizens8.org/about.html
[5] citizens8.org/about.html

Creative Workspaces

By: Kristina Shrestha Hada

With evolution of wireless technologies and the Internet people are capable of working wherever they are and whenever they want. There are many people who are moving towards new concept of “Work-at-Home”. This is possible because of the wireless technology and Internet. People make business deals while standing on line or while sitting on a couch. With time the definition of a work place is also changing.
As we already know that many offices prefer cubical work spaces. On the other hand, high tech offices are moving towards open spaces. For example, companies like Google, Facebook, Airbnb and YouTube have open plan offices which would allow more interaction between employees and motivate employees to perform quality tasks [1].
The world is getting more competitive and people are always looking for new, creative and innovative products. Innovation can range from a simple toothbrush to latest computers and smart phones. Creative products grab attention of consumers. For example, most people in United States are using creative products. So, where does the companies get their creative products?  “Today nearly two-thirds of Americans own a smartphone [2].” Although two-third of people in US own smartphones [2], every time when Apple Inc. launches a new iPhone models, we can see a long line of inquisitive and enthusiastic buyers who are willing to be first to experience new products. It is the creative product which gives its consumers a unique sense of satisfaction ultimately changing them to loyal customers. So, who are creating these creative products?  A simple answer is the employees of these companies which produce such creative products. They are the ones who come up with great ideas and changes the dream into a reality in the form of creative services and products.
Can we motivate employees to be creative? This arises another question, i.e., “can a work space play an important role to create an environment where employees get motivated and be creative?”  In other words, can we design a creative space? Space has many possibilities and potentials. We can create sacred spaces, isolated spaces, and social spaces. So, why can’t we create a creative space?
In a workspace, many things play vital roles in determining the creativity of an employee. The things that encourages creativity are i) the amount of light used in a workspace, ii) the color of the workspace, iii) work space where they interact with other people, iv) space where they can relax, and have a leisure time, and v) furniture used in workspace.
Google is the forerunner in providing creative spaces for their employees. They have adopted open plan workspace. They provide employees with play time and leisure areas where they can think better. Google is designing offices differently so that it could allow its employees to have best spaces which would boost their creativity, “to create the happiest, most productive workplace in the world,” according to a Google spokesman, Jordan Newman.” [3]. When people are asked, where they get their best ideas; most people responded with walking, in social gatherings, etc. Some of today’s well-known companies started their early journeys from garages, or in pizzerias but now these companies are looking for creative spaces.
With existing examples and trends, there are no doubts that creative workspace can boost creativity of a person. It helps people to interact more about their ideas and provides a comfortable environment where they are free to explore the world of endless possibilities.

1.      Kaufman, Lindsay, “Google got it wrong. The open-office trend is destroying the workplace.”, https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/12/30/google-got-it-wrong-the-open-office-trend-is-destroying-the-workplace/, Accessed on November 7, 2015
2.      Smith, Aaron; “U. S Smartphone use in 2015”, http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/01/us-smartphone-use-in-2015/, Accessed on November 7, 2015
“Looking for a lesson in Google’s perks”, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/16/business/at-google-a-place-to-work-and-play.html, Accessed on November 9, 2015